Interviewee: Niya Bates, Public Historian of African-American Life and Culture at Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello
Interviewer(s): Deborah E. McDowell; James Perla
Interview date: 2018-07-29
Interview Summary: Interview with Niya Bates, Public Historian of African-American Life and Culture at Monticello. The interview took place at Monticello. In it, Bates discussed an exhibit on Sally Hemings, the physical environment of Monticello, Jefferson and Hemings’ relationship, Hemings family history, and the role of institutions today.
Keywords: Thomas Jefferson, Sally Hemings, Monticello, built environment, slavery, African American History
Transcription: Hahna Cho
James Perla: Do you want to maybe describe where we are right now and the purpose for our visit here to Monticello.
Deborah McDowell: We are in the splendid landscape of Monticello having taken the path through beautiful gardens listening to the birds awaiting Niya Bates’s arrival to talk about, among other things, the current exhibition of Sally Hemings, the Getting Word Project and various and sundry other activities of Monticello. Niya Bates I think I see approaching us here, is an expert on all things slavery and particularly on Sally Hemings and whatever relationship she had with Thomas Jefferson.
JP: Wonderful. Yeah. We’re kind of sitting out in front. Uh, really just parallel. To um, I guess the back of the home. Yeah, back of the Jefferson’s home. Had some nice classical architecture, those columns. It’s really just very symmetrical.
DMcD: And the order of the environment even with all of the curvature, the house is very rectilinear. Everything is rectilinear. But surrounding it is all of these wonderful rolling serpentine designs replicated on the grounds of the University.
JP: Yeah. Hi. Yeah to meet you. Thanks for coming out.
Thank you now. So you’re in capable hands and you’re incapable hands. So I’m gonna vacate the premises. Give my best to Carmenita. I will thank you.
JP: And I hope you don’t mind we moved things around just slightly to get two seats here.
Niya Bates: No, that’s fine. You’d be surprised. These benches go all over the mountain path. Oh yeah, I mean people picnic out here.
DMcD: Oh, is that allowed?
NB: You know… “Allowed.”
JP: I was gonna say I’m like I’m using my white privilege for good here to like rearrange the things but I guess that people do that anyways.
NB: Yeah, I mean that says a lot about our average visitor.
Different levels of engagement at Monticello
DMcD: Haha, touche. Touche. What’s it like then if that’s your average visitor?
NB: Um, you know, sometimes it’s pushing a rock uphill especially when you’re [3:00] having more complicated discussions about race and identity and colorism and rape and consent, uh, it can be very difficult sometimes for people who are not necessarily open or primed for those conversations, uh even more so when we have guides who are very excellent interpreters, they’re good at telling stories but not everyone has the same level of comfort with these topics. So I mean you can get wide-ranging conversations from very complex theoretical, you know professor-like conversations about these issues and then you can also have people who are just coming to it for the first time and or maybe resistant.
JP: And you have to plan around that those different levels of engagement.
NB: We do have to plan around those different levels of engagement. So that’s the challenge of seeing almost half a million visitors a year.
JP:Wow. That’s yeah. Yeah, that’s amazing.
NB:Right? I mean you’re here on peak season and I’m sure our listeners can’t see [4:00] what’s going on. But you can and there are a lot of people here today and we’re running towards every five minutes and it’s that’s what a peak day looks like at Monticello.
JP: Wonderful. Yeah. Well, would you like to just describe the scene a little bit? Um, Although our listeners can’t see that you know, it’s uh, I’m sure they’ll be able to maybe picture certain elements. What are we looking at? Where are we? How are you feeling?
DMcD: Sure. We’re basically in Jefferson’s backyard. We’re at the West Lawn at Monticello sitting at the very back of the garden. You can see near us some serpentine flower beds, to our left is one of the oldest trees on the mountain top. actually on the other side of the green tree that you’re all looking at is maybe one tree that we think to Cedar we think it was here when Jefferson and the enslaved Community were here. Uh, just down the hill to our right
JP: Is it just that tree right there to the left?
NB: Yeah. It’s just behind that tree. We could actually see it from a different angle, but there is a cedar tucked in between that growth and just all the way [5:00] to our right down the hill is Mulberry Row, which is the plantation Main Street of Monticello. There are a few reconstructed buildings there and then of course, uh, you’re looking at the terraces left and right up the house. Uh, so to the left of the house is the South Terrace and under that would have been the carriage bays and to the right of the house is the North Terrace. I’m sorry, is the South Terrance and under the South Terrace would have been The Life of SallyHemings exhibit, Getting Word, and the Granger Hemings kitchen some of these spaces we’re interpreting.
JP: Wonderful. Um, yeah. So, uh, I’m glad that we’re just jumping right into it here, um a few just like comments for I guess, um, uh sort of this interview. I’ve noticed since I’ve been sitting here that there might be some planes that are going by from time to time if there is a very obvious plane going overhead.I might just kind of put my hand up and ask you to sort of pause. But yeah apart from that like we said in our email just kind of a free-flowing conversation. We have a few prepared questions that will follow up with from that initial email [6:00] that we sent you. Um, and yeah from there I’m just hoping that we can have kind of a free-flowing conversation. And so um, I guess just to start if you might just um, say your name and title and what you do here just just that we have it on.
NB: Sure. My name is Niya Bates and I’m Public Historian of Slavery and African-American life at Monticello. I am also Director of the Getting Word African-American Oral History Project.
JP: Thanks. Um and so you were a UVA graduate correct? At the Carter G. Woodson Institute.
NB: That’s right. Yeah. I’m a “double Hoo.” I have a bachelor’s in African and African American Studies and a graduate degree in Architectural History and Historic Preservation.
JP: Excellent. Um, you’ve been in these parts for quite some time. Has your thoughts about Jefferson changed over time.
NB: Oh, certainly. I mean sure I was a student at the University but I also grew up in Charlottesville. This is my hometown and I don’t remember a single school year where I didn’t come up to Monticello on a field trip and some of my [7:00] earliest memories, probably when I was about nine or ten on a field trip, were asking a guide who Sally Hemings is and the response was “Oh, we don’t talk about her.” Um, so that was kind of my first impression of Monticello and that’s been like 20 years, of course, but um, uh, Monticello has changed a lot since then and I think um, the more that I study Jefferson the more I get to know some of the intricacies of life here at Monticello for the enslaved community, the more complicated my opinions of him become.
DMcD: And would you say something about what the nature of some of those complications are say, if you had to say whatever the three top ways in which your understanding of Jefferson have been complicated since your arrival.
Jefferson's contradictions and writing on race in Notes on the State of Virginia
NB: Certainly. So my graduate degree is in African — I mean, sorry my graduate degrees in architectural history. And of course Jefferson was a brilliant architect and a great designer and he contributed so much to our kind of iconic [8:00] American architecture – bricks columns neo-colonial or neo-classicist architecture. Um, brought this Italianate Renaissance style to Virginia and to an early America and that’s something that I really applaud. He’s a great designer. But some of the things that are really flawed about his life are the ways that he writes about interacting with people of African descent. He writes in his only book, Notes on the State of Virginia, about racial hierarchy. He writes about sort of pseudo-scientific racist beliefs that black people are inferior. That they are not capable of love, not capable of emotion, not capable of being a writer like Phyllis Wheatley. I mean that’s one of the people he discredited. Uh, and you look at his life and everything he did is provided by black people.I mean someone is dressing him, Someone is stoking the fires in his room, Someone is likely passing and paper, all of his meals are prepared by black enslaved people and all of his wealth is tied to the institution of [9:00] slavery. So that makes it very complex to understand him. You want to wait till they…
JP: Probably wait till the tour passes, but I do I do have a question Since you mentioned about Jeffersonian architecture that I’d like you to uh expand a bit since since we’re here, um in this sort of like whatever he called the Lawn, you know, the um, case study in architecture. I forget the exact language that UVA’s Lawn um, but yeah, maybe weâll just be patient here [10:00] as the tour passes and we maybe we can have some idle chatter too.
DM: Yeah, and maybe I don’t well, you can’t can’t pick her up. But I was gonna say if we could turn the mic and case.
JP: We could yeah, we can maybe see what we can do.
NB: sure and some context on the tour where overhearing, this is a garden tour. So it starts just there by the fish pond to the right side of the house. Um, and so you’re going to get a lot of history about the plants about Wormely Hughes, the enslaved gardener who really sort of led the work with the gardens. You’ll [10:00] also get a little bit about Jefferson’s beliefs about plants, trying out different types of things.
JP: He liked to experiment.
NB: He did uh, some of the memoirs from the enslaved community say that he liked to tinker in the garden himself, but we always have to remind people that majority of work is done by enslaved people.
JP: Yeah, I think tinker is a keyword. I don’t know I feel like that’s come up a lot like you. He’s always tinkering, right?
NB: Always tinkering, uh, some people think of him as an inventor. I would call him someone who just experimented with a lot of different things, an early adapter I would say of new technology.
JP: A DIY, maybe?
NB: A DIY, maybe. That’s a good way…
JP: Um, you have some interesting thoughts about Jefferson and plants. Oh man.
DMcD: Well, I just have to go back through the the notes. I’ve taught it lots times and haven’t thought it through completely but uh, I have I should go back to my earlier lecture notes where when Jefferson is talking about plants and 11:00nature and botanical matters. When he’s talking about hybridizing, for example, the language of the text just become so much more excitable and in many cases, it’s my students would think it was just the imaginings of a mad middle-aged school teacher, but I would say that the language became even slightly eroticized at those moments when he is talking about hybridizing. It’s in the botanical world, but it’s clearly extrapolable or can be generalized to at least think about other things.
JP: So, in his language, in the, in the prose, it almost gets and hybridizing? So, this is like when you join plants together, sort of tinkering in the garden.
DMcD: Yeah. It’s it’s um at those moments where he’s talking about hybridity in [12:00] the Botanical world. Again, this is all interpretive. This is when people sometimes off at literary Scholars because it’s not anything you can prove. This is all interpretation.
JP: But it has some insights into perhaps his… Yeah. His worldview and experiences?
DM: Yes. Because they’re always ways when people are writing where language exceeds our own grasp. Language, exceeds our intentions. We know what we want to say, right? We know how we want to say it even but somehow there is an inevitable slip between what we want and imagine and what actually appears.
NB: Right, and for him he’s also thinking about his legacy. So it’s more about how people remember it or how people perceive his language. I mean….
JP: Yeah, and he said she mentioned such a measured writer. So for those moments where it’s almost like there’s less, um, the stakes are a little bit less high? [13:00] You know, there’s not as much stakes in talking about plants and grafting like, you know, um botanical things together and so maybe that’s a little part of it where those, that is the slippage? Maybe? I don’t know.
DMcD: Well, that’s that’s the only thing I’m suggesting it’s not anything I would labor over but as we think about Jefferson in all of the ways he’s actually trying to conceal so much about the beastly inhuman, uh monstrosity That was slavery. I mean that the lens to which he’s going all the time not just in his writing, in the architecture to conceal the workings of this design and these experiments that uh, whatever one has to work so hard to contain, is gonna erupt. I don’t hesitate to incorporate Freud here and I don’t worship at his Shrine, but he got some things right. The repressed will return.
Monticello's design and hiding the labor of enslaved peoples
JP: that’s for sure and on that topic, um, not Freud but of concealing. I wanted to pick up on a conversation you were kind of alluding to just a moment ago about Jefferson’s architecture, you know his contributions and in the classical sense, um, but also the way that he hides labor, he hides the means of production and you know in terms of being a lesson in architecture, um, Monticello more than other places. I mean we’re sitting on the top of the mountain and I don’t see much. I wonder if you could maybe meditate on that a bit and then also talk about the place We are now in kind of what we can see and what we can’t see
NB: sure. So we’re sitting on the west line and you cannot see Mulberry Row from here. Um, and I think for a lot of people under first examination, it would seem that perhaps Jefferson is trying to hide the labor of enslaved people but the reality of 18th and 19th century living is that you can’t hide the labor of15:00enslaved people. They’re doing everything. they are everywhere on the mountain top. They’re in the house, They are on Mulberry Row, They’re out in the fields and mind you, This is a large Plantation. Monticello sits at the center of a 5,000 acre Plantation at any given time There are 120 to 140 enslaved people here. It is a large Plantation and the activity of the enslaved community is everywhere. Uh, so in the architecture, I would say Jefferson is not necessarily hiding but minimizing the presence of enslaved people through techniques like, uh locating the service activities things like the kitchen, the laundry, the deli. I mean, the deli, haha. The dairy, uh, the kitchen the laundry the dairy is putting those in the wings that are underground here. So what you see here are just the tops of these Terraces, but there are work spaces below those railings that are built into the side of the mountain top and there are passageways from those South wings that lead to the house. So as an enslaved person say you are James Hemings or Edith Fossett and you’ve prepared a meal in 16:00the kitchen. Uh, you can take that through that Subterranean service passage under the house and up into the dining room. And in the dining room, there’s a dumbwaiter so you can set that food on the dumbwaiter and leave. it minimizes the amount of enslaved people that have to be serving a meal and I would say that’s really the core of Jefferson’s architectural design. He uses the same techniques at the University of Virginia. If you look at The Pavilions on the Lawn, they’re the center of his academical village and as much as he wanted to minimize students bringing their own enslaved people Uh, I think there was some awareness that professors and students would do that Anyway. so you have the spaces Under The Pavilions that became workspaces and that shift to either allow more functionality or to allow more light. The designs are very thoughtful in that respect to how they organize work. So here at Monticello, Uh, there’s a Great big spatialized landscape of Labor. so you have the house where you have [17:00] more domestic workers, people who are taking care of the china, people who are cleaning the house. Priscilla Hemings who would have been the nursemaid who would have been working in the nursery on the third floor. and then you have your spaces that I just described that are out in the wings underground and then the next level is Mulberry Row. and Mulberry Row is really the industrial Hub. That’s where things are converted from the raw materials collected out in the field Into objects. So that’s where your carpenter shop, your joinery, the tinsmith, the metalSmith, those kind of things are taking place and then at distance you have the quarter farms and that’s really where the agricultural production is taking place. So there is a really specialized hierarchy of labor.
JP: Um, just a quick follow-up. I mean, so you’re suggesting and I might have just misunderstood a little bit but you’re suggesting that you know, the function of the dumbwaiters in these underground passages were more about Efficiency or is there an element too of Jefferson not wanting to see or be seen [18:00] particularly when he’s entertaining guests of them not wanting to see the enslaved Workforce or is that kind of a misnomer?
Thomas Jefferson's relationship with Sally Hemings is contentious as early as 1802.
NB: I’m suggesting both. Uh, there’s a lot of efficiency happening here. There’s a lot of mechanization of work, uh, which is perhaps a different, is different than a lot of plantations actually. when you look at most plantations where we’re sitting with probably be where the outbuildings are. And instead this is a garden. This is a reflective space at the private space for the family and the work is not visible here. It is located down on Mulberry row. Uh, so what Jefferson is doing is basically turning this into a big machine. but the second part of that is that when he’s entertaining because he is very cognizant of the fact that people are visiting. I think it’s granddaughters write in their diaries that people used to just drive up to Monticello, press their face against glass and hope to be invited in. so there were lots of times that People would just be up here and there’d be large dinner parties. And for those events He is minimizing the presence of enslaved people, especially when it becomes [19:00] kind of contentious and what I’m speaking of is like early 1800s when he’s running for political office people start noticing that there are a lot of lighter-skinned enslaved people here at Monticello and that uh, they are describing those people to look like Thomas Jefferson, right? So it serves him to keep fewer people around that dinner table if you go inside.
JP: Wow, can you just I mean like what?
NB: Yeah, you know so Thomas Jefferson’s relationship with Sally Hemings is contentious as early as 1802. James Callender smears him basically in a newspaper and he says, you know, he has children with, as Callender described her “Black Sal” or uh, “Dusky Sally” and uh, the kids look just like Thomas Jefferson and of course, they’re using that against him as a political tool, but they’re also calling out a relationship with an enslaved woman.
JP: Which at the time was common so who needs DNA evidence? Right?
NB: Well, I think the DNA evidence really gave Credence to the oral history of 20:00these families. I mean these enslaved families never forgot their oral history and They Carried that through 200 years. Um, but I think what was overlooked because they were African-Americans, because they had been enslaved historians were not taking their oral histories Seriously. and one of the arguments that uh, Sally Hemings scholar, Annette gordon-reed, makes is that for all this time They intentionally overlooked the narratives of the enslaved Community because there were lots of stereotypes and misconceptions about African-American intelligence about the reliability of the information from their oral history. So, uh, the DNA really backed that up, but honestly, uh these families never doubted Their connection to Thomas Jefferson.
DMcD: It’s so interesting to think about the DNA. This is gonna be a pretty long Preamble. So bear with me, uh, it’s interesting to think about the DNA because when it is convenient for people who worship at The Shrine of science to say, well, we don’t trust oral history because we can’t prove it, that we need the [21:00] unimpeachable evidence that science provides. now I was at uh, Kenwood the afternoon the announcement was made That um by dr. Foster. now, dr. Foster was this retired pathologist this avuncular man, and he made the very modest statement that if the man reported to be Thomas Jefferson’s father was in fact his father, then we can ascertain, the DNA can ascertain for us that Jefferson fathered at least one of Sally Hemings’s children. So this was a completely modest proposition. Now there were people that afternoon prepared to introduce into the conversation the speculation Well that perhaps Thomas Jefferson’s father was not his father. that’s so unimaginable, Was it, that that science had now verified this for us? All right. So there’s this there is that [22:00] that when it is convenient, To incorporate science into the conversation Let’s have science but when science gives you what you think you must have, then science can be suddenly questioned or at least we can demure a bit. If not reject science We can say well maybe the man reported to be Daddy was not his daddy as black people say mama’s baby Papa’s maybe I guess I don’t really want to know.
NB: Right well and then look at the other theories that have Arisen since the DNA testing, uh, most of the people who continue to deny Jefferson’s paternity of Sally Hemings’s children like to offer Alternatives. Well clearly it was his brother. clearly because now it has to be another male Jefferson. And at first it was oh it was the Carr nephews when the DNA said no, there’s no possibility then it’s like, oh we have to find somebody else who who it could be [23:00] and people are jumping through Hoops to find other theories, but basically if you compare the DNA, the oral history, all of the evidence of who was here at Monticello and who was not nine months before all of Sally Hemings’s children. It could not have been anyone but Thomas Jefferson.
JP: Yeah. Um, yeah, that’s incredible. So, uh, I have a brief follow-up because we’re here And you know here some car sounds you hear some other sounds and um just a brief way of closing the loop on the architectural conversation. Um sound uh, that was one thing that you know, because we always talk about sight lines, but what might Jefferson and the people visiting Monticello hear on an average day? I mean, uh, you’re up in an elevated space, could they hear, um Row? the activity?
NB: Oh absolutely. 18th century living was notoriously disgusting. Like there was nothing Pleasant about being in eighteenth-century, Virginia and you’re at 24:00the top of a mountain, Jefferson and his family and the enslaved Community always struggled with water issues here. So you would have heard lots of carts probably from people going down to the Rivanna river and bringing water back up. Uh, you would have heard chopping wood. Uh, we’re not too far from where the coal sheds are. They would have been just down the hill behind us. So you would have heard that. you would have smelled smoke. you would have they would have been animals here, Lots of chickens on Mulberry Row. Uh, so you would have heard some clucking um, and you would have heard work, honestly. I mean, uh, you heard activities from the kitchen. Um, I’m not good at describing these kind of Sonic presences here, but it would have been a very noisy Place.
JP: Yeah. So the claim that in some ways Jefferson was trying to hide labor, it’s like how much can you really hide?
NB: Right? How much can you really hide? The truth is not much, uh the house that you see now is extremely curated but it never would have been this clean. It never would have been this pretty. there was certainly a lot going on here.
DMcD: back to the question of Sally Hemings Jefferson, the children, rape, trying to segue into the exhibition, uh, and perhaps by way of Annette gordon-reed. Uh, obviously she’s done the world a great service since she did these On Jefferson and Hemings and she’s inclined to claim for that relationship, a dimension that other historians and lay people are not. in other words, She seems not to want to say categorically nothing could have obtained between Jefferson and Hemings Uh, that was anything but Reducible to rape to exploitation, uh, brutality Etc. She seems not to want to go that far. She seems to want more inclined to want to 26:00say something could have passed between these people despite what we know about consent and such. where… talk to us a little bit about that.
NB: Sure. Yeah, in Annette’s work, she puts out the possibility that it could have been a romantic relationship and I think that uh, her approach there is that if we just call it rape, then we remove any possibility that Sally Hemings had any agency in the relationship. Uh, we can all imagine even in contemporary America, situations where a relationship may have been consensual and then wasn’t or started as rape and then became Consensual. so there’s a spectrum of where this relationship could have fallen, but I think the things that are critical to point out about the relationship, the sexual relationship at least, between Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings is that there is a gross power imbalance. Uh, he is 30 years her senior, He’s her owner, She does not [27:00] have the ability or the power to say no in this situation. Um, she is Second generation biracial so that means her mother had children by a white man and her grandmother did the same. Uh, so there are lots of things that are at play. Uh, this could have been something or a strategy for her to achieve more privilege for her children, right? Uh, we know from her son Madison that in negotiating with Thomas Jefferson, she negotiated extraordinary privilege for herself and freedom for their four children who survived. so they have six children together; two die as infants And four live to be adult and they’re all freed. They are the only nuclear family at Monticello for that to happen. Uh, so we can’t rule out the possibility that Sally Hemings, even at the young age of 16, had the foresight to negotiate some power in the situation for herself, which is I think why we have to give it, uh space to not just be rape and to not just be [28:00] consent perhaps there’s more there.
JP: Yeah, um just a brief clarifying questions In about the um freeing uh, Jefferson and Sally Hemings’ um children. Um, we spoke with Maya Bay a few weeks ago the historian and um, she suggested that um, and it’s been quite some years but since she’s done this research, so it was, you know, very tentative at best, but she suggested that you know, Jefferson didn’t free them until they turned 21 And so, um making the the implication that like maybe they had earned their value quote-unquote in that system. And so just to complicate maybe the benevolence of freeing Sally Hemings’ children? I wonder if you can just clarify that for us just so that we have a another perspective on that.
Hemings descendants passing for white in VA
NB: Right, and I think the easiest way to do that is to say he owned 607 people and in his lifetime he only freed 10. um, I think that removes any benevolent [29:00] factor of someone being able to work hard enough to earn their freedom. He freed Sally Hemings’ children because they made an agreement and as Madison says he upheld that; a verbal agreement with an enslaved woman. He does the same with her older brother who he also freed because James Hemings while in Paris negotiated his own Freedom at the sake of his brother, which is an interesting family Dynamic But um, you know, I think we have to look at Jefferson’s racial beliefs to really get to the core of understanding What happened with his children. Uh, he writes in notes on the state of Virginia and it’s law at the time Basically that anyone who is 7/8ths white is white. and his children with Sally Hemings are 7/8ths white, They are light enough to pass. So he allows Beverly and Harriet the two oldest, uh, Beverly being his oldest son and Harriet being their only daughter together, uh frees them and they pass into white society and we never hear from them again. Um, when he dies as Eston and Madison are freed In the will and they go to live in Charlottesville where in 1830 [30:00] they’re both listed as free white along with their mother Sally Hemings, which is interesting. They’re listed as free white, but then Virginia gets very strict after the Nat Turner rebellion, and they’re required to register for free and when they do so they register as black and they’re required to leave the state of Virginia.
So they move to Southern Ohio and from there one of them chooses to remain African-American and that’s Madison And his brother Eston decides to move one more time to Wisconsin changes his name from Eston Hemings to E.H. Jefferson and his descendants go on believing that they are Irish immigrants, which is a really interesting story. that’s passed down in the oral history. So, um, it’scomplicated but I think the core of their racial identity is really why Jefferson frees them.
JP: That’s fascinating.
DMcD: Fascinating, enlightening in the whole range of other things we could add here. Uh, I’m not going to keep sticking to this one note but to go back just [31:00] once more to the idea of Sally Hemings and what power and agency she may or may not have had. as literary scholar. Of course. I’m inclined to have many references to literature and especially to the literature of enslaved people. So I think when I think about Sally Hemings, about Harriet Jacobs for example and Harriet Jacobs while she fends herself Against The Unwanted sexual aggression so her owner, dr. Flint, uh, she does enter willingly into a relationship with uh, another white Plantation owner, he’s not her owner. Um, but he is a part of thesystem and she talks about it explicitly as a choice on her part. It is better [32:00] to give oneself is what she’s saying in essence. I’m paraphrasing her, uh than you know, in other words to choose your own love object then to have somebody forced forced himself upon you. So she and her children are also vulnerable to and victims of the system, but she enters into that, uh consciously, willingly. Uh, she too is Young And I think in addition to thinking about race and racial identity in this conversation We also have to think about for the historical record the fact that separate stages of childhood that we honor and assume at our historical moment did not obtain in this era so that childhood as this period of a separate stage, a separate and protected stage of development is fairly late in human history and is not obtaining people at the age of 14 could [33:00] be married at the time. This is not to erase any of the complications you have introduced into the conversation but to say That this is so bedeviling because we have to consider all of these issues in space and time.
Complicating Hemings through the perspective of childhood
NB: Right, Exactly. And I think that’s a really good point you make because I actually should have mentioned what the age of consent in Virginia was at that time and it’s 10. It’s 10 years old. Um, Sally Hemings is not considered a child at 16. In fact many white women at the time are not considered children either. Uh, so this is really Uh as a scholar who’s here currently on Fellowship, her name is Montia Gardner. She’s been doing some research on reproductive resistance of enslaved women and she suggests that it’s a gender issue and not a racial one. It really is that Sally Hemings is considered a Woman by the time she’s 16, um and some more background on what children are doing here. I mean by the age of five you have a job and from 5 to 10, you’re doing things like [34:00] babysitting other children carrying water to people who are working. This is not a world where you get to hold onto childhood until you’re 18. It’s just not how that was. And I think um, you know, Deborah is right to point out that you don’t have a childhood in the modern sense.
Challenges of creating the Sally Hemings exhibit at Monticello
JP: Yeah, and so the exhibit I mean what were some challenges in making this exhibit? I mean you point out This really rich actual amount of historical detail about the Hemings family, but I know that Deborah’s pointed out that there’s no sort of authoritative image of Sally Hemings herself And so I don’t know. I wonder if you can maybe just speak a bit about the unique challenges of mounting this exhibit.
NB: right, you know in working on this exhibit One of the first things we became aware of is that while Sally Hemings has always been one of the most famous or one of the most recognizable Enslaved women in the US by her story, We actually don’t know a ton about her private life. Uh, we don’t have any photographs of [35:00] her. Uh, so we weren’t willing to make leaps in the exhibit about her complexion or about how straight is “long, straight, dark hair.” Uh, how long is long hair? Um, she’s described as being a very handsome which is pretty but like what do those features mean? So rather than guess at what she looked like we decided to represent her the same way that we were going to represent Martha. If we’re going to do Martha Jefferson, then uh and in her space put a dress and give her a physical presence Then we had to do the same for Sally Hemings. Um, so that was our first decision is she has to have a presence in the room. Uh, the second thing is putting her voice there and because we don’t have any writings from her and we assumed that perhaps she was literate, her brother was literate in both French and English. Um, you know, we’re making a little bit of a leap, but there are no papers from her. you know the nature of slavery is that there are rarely our papers from enslaved people. So, uh, since we didn’t have 36:00her words the closest we could get was having her son Madison and having his testimony that he gave to a newspaper in Southern Ohio in 1873. Um, fortunately for us we were working with a firm out of um, Canada and they saw almost immediately that you could take Madison Hemings words And turn it into poetry. So that’s what we decided to do in this space to make it as beautiful as possible and to allow people to have a most intimate conversation with Sally Hemings and we did that with Madison’s words. So the room itself is very simple. There’s no furniture we decided because there is the cooks room in the same part of the house that you could already see what a slave quarter would have looked like so there was no need to reproduce another period room where we put a bed, Furniture and textiles there was no need for all that. So the room is very simple you walk in and then there’s a multimedia presentation and that’s [37:00] narrated exclusively by Madison with some background sounds to illuminate the activities.
JP: Yeah. Um, it looks like it’s starting to maybe drizzle which should be Okay, as long as it doesn’t start pouring down. um, the the dean of the College of Arts and Sciences talks about needing to have The University of Virginia be a university of Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings. And so I wonder if you can either speak on that or are meditate on what sort of a Monticello by or for Sally Hemings May look like?
NB: you know, I think Monticello and the University of Virginia are both grappling with the same issue. And in many ways the city of Charlottesville after the August 12th white supremacist rally in 2017. Um, everyone has come up with An idea of the American founding and for a lot of people, uh, the founding is predominantly male and white. and while the people who are framing early [38:00] America are male and white and for the most part wealthy, uh, there are millions of other people here, most of them enslaved. Um, there are also Native Americans This land that we are on is stolen so Uh, there are lots of layers to this history and we would be telling an incomplete story if you came here and you got a story about Thomas Jefferson, one dead white guy on a plantation of hundreds of other people. uh, that wouldn’t do it justice and it’s not enough just to talk about the enslaved Community either because Jefferson was here and his family was here. Uh, so you have to talk about the women, you have to talk about the children, You have to talk about, uh, the hired Workman who were here who were free white workman Who lived in close proximity to enslave to people; you have to talk about that dynamic as well. Because that cuts at every subsection of the American population. That is our American story. That is something we can all see ourselves in. And as Monticello is telling the story we’re looking for a story that all Americans can take in and can identify where they fit into this [39:00] story. It also can’t be one that’s exclusively sad. It can’t be slavery was horrible all the time because it was, slavery was a terrible. It was demeaning it dehumanized people. Um, but it also um, you know slavery was the foundation of our new country and this is going to sound really harsh But America would have never become the world power that it is without the institution of slavery [40:00] and that is not glorify slavery, but it’s to acknowledge that it is the economic base of early America and we can’t tell a story about a president, about someone who served in political power who went abroad and represented this country, without talking about the institution of slavery and the people who were here.
JP: Wonderful. Um, so yeah I wonder if we start maybe wandering to uh, you know to the enclosure but yeah, I mean, this is just a wonderful conversation.
DMcD: Really, I mean just so so rich, I’m just wondering if we get out of the rain. you’re still free for lunch?
NB: Yeah. I’m still free for lunch. Uh, I can do lunch until two o’clock.
JP: Okay, great, Great. Well, yeah we can kind of wander and I’m fine to kind of..
DMcD: and maybe would you mind if We turn the recorder on again because it’s just wonderfully rich..
NB: Yeah no that’s fine
JP: and I can kind of keep it, you know, yeah rolling a little bit
DMcD: Yes, just amazing, exactly what we’re after here.
JP: Yeah. and luckily it’s not too much.
DMcD: …but really thinking about uh all exhibitions are Involved in leaps of interpretation and leaps of imagination. Uh, but I can imagine people taking exception to the kind of exhibition you have mounted and not then having the generosity of spirit or for that matter, uh, the wealth of knowledge to say well [41:00] all exhibitions involved interpretive leaps, right choices, certain choices, avoid other choices. Uh, and so how would you defend your exhibition against the Skeptics unable to have that kind of intellectual elasticity?
NB: you know, I don’t know that we necessarily have to defend it. Uh We’ve presented all of the information outside of the room on text panels. and the reality of Museum exhibitions is that not everybody’s going to like it. And for people who are not ready for these stories perhaps this is too bold of a statement, To give her space to give her story of space, to do something like you know give her that physical presence and to use Madison’s memoir a lot [42:00] of people will say âwell that’s not fact, that’s oral history, That’s the way he remembered it. Well we’re able to take Thomas Jefferson’s words and say that that’s fact, we’re happy to use his family’s words and say that that’s fact. It’s really only when it comes to these African-American perspectives where people are less willing to be generous in the information that they can conceive. So, yeah.
JP: pick a souvenir?
DM: well, I don’t recognize this plant. I’m a gardener, too.
NB: Oh, they normally have plates that say what they are.
DM: Oh good and I wanted to take a picture, but I Didn’t want to interrupt the… and uh..
NB: Joseph’s Coat amaranths tri-color
DM: Joseph’s coat
DM: because I yes, it obviously thrives here. Oh good James get it because I want this in my garden. I don’t recognize it and I recognize every other plant [43:00] along this this uh, path But I just didn’t recognize it.
(Conversation about plants)
Now when I said defend, I meant that kind of only in the loosest sense because I would agree with you that it does not need defending but that people will be prepared to accept as you say any other Leaps of imagination or any other representations of historical reality, right? If the descendants of Jefferson, if their words can be accepted and if they have a certain amount or provide historical record of a certain amount of veracity, why can’t, Exactly. Yeah, I would completely agree and I think we’re bringing our students interns here on Tuesday to see the exhibition. But I think one of the things he will [44:00] definitely want to stress with them is that um, this is thinking of museums, We shouldn’t limit our thoughts to hard fact, is or isn’t.
NB: Sometimes you have to draw from the gray space. Oh, yeah, I mean you need so much about her [unintelligible] and you have to quantify it in some way to put it into an exhibit.
NB: And I think some of the things are [ ] in my opinion brilliant.
DM: I think the very idea of the exhibition is brilliant.
NB: Yeah, and I think you know the Canadian designers were excellent for seeing that early on. And for bringing us along with it.
DM: How did you settle on them? How did you settle on actually inviting people in to help you imagine the exhibition
NB: we kind of did it like you would do any process; put out a call Essentially. [45:00] we sought out designers who we thought would have the right type of background, people would work in theatre. We knew we wanted to do something more um involved. So we went with a designer who had a lot of theater design and set design experience. and they ended up being the best pick.
DM: and what’s so interesting about that is we do not think about museological work as in any way in the universe [unintelligible] in consultation with people whose domain is performance
NB: Exactly, and for people outside of the US who had like no preconceived Notions of American slavery, right? which is great because they saw the voids [46:00] that most of our average visitors have because they don’t study this all the time.
Not so bad? Reconciling the beauty of Monticello with its history of violence
DMcD: Do you see, and what I love about that Oh Look at this. Look at this.
NB: This makes my job hard.
JP: What do you mean?
NB: This view is so pretty. Monticello is gorgeous, even though it’s a place where a lot of people experienced violence and inequality and just like a lot of pain. Uh, even Jefferson’s family. I mean his wife lost a couple children, She died in childbirth after their sixth. I mean, there’s a lot of uh, very difficult emotions here and yet people come inevitably and they get this great view to the east they’re like, oh it’s not that bad, which is something we actually have to fight. We put a sign in one of the reconstructed quarters that says not so bad question Mark, because we had a lot of people going in there and saying oh this is kind of nice, it’s not that bad. Uh, so we had to remind them that it you know, people could be sold and that’s the reality.
DMcD: I like that you have adjusted the signage to reflect responses from the [47:00] public. I find that in itself, because the idea that even the Commitment to reinterpreting this history can itself continue to evolve, can continue to remain dynamic. It’s never Frozen.
NB: and we’re thankful for that, Right? I mean the interpretation here 25 years ago is nowhere what you get today, right?
DMcD: Nowhere near. but on that question of not so bad, I’m reminded of uh, I don’t know if you were attended the second, um universities and slavery conference last October, but I’ve been to chair the panel and I had some ambivalence about joining the panel which featured um heads of Institutions likeMonticello, the person for Montpelier was there, and/or college presidents, who were all confronting their slave pasts and that they had all chosen to highlight [48:00] Henry the bell ringer or the Lemon project at William and Mary and I said, well, what if we imagine as we are retelling this history or what if we had to consider that we may be contributing to sanitizing this history that if Henry got up every morning no matter what and Faithfully rang the bell, Why can’t we also find the space, even if we don’t have the documentary evidence in the form of a figure like Henry the bell ringer or lemon, that this was a brutal institution and people were undone by this institution. And so even in trying to imagine it in a way or reimagine it by saying well, despite it all whether you intend That or not, well you focus on the people who rang the bell every day what you are saying inadvertently is it wasn’t so bad. So when I did say that 49:00the person from Monticello who was representing Monticello did say that they had had to consider that and I’m now glad to see that He did it. because otherwise you do inadvertently create the sense that people endure, people survive. and that’s important. That’s an important part of the narrative, but it’s not the only part of the narrative so that even as we say to go back to your earlier and very important point there was joy, There was tragedy, pain, there was joy, there was um, people sustaining family relations to the extent that they could uh, and that holding these things together simultaneously, uh is so important, uh, but for me, refusing to let slavery be incorporated into a general tendency in this country to see everything in progressivist terms. We [50:00] are getting better and better and better and better. I think it should be possible to say there was some people who did not survive this institution. Some people were undone by this institution and that undone-ness they bequeathed to the generations that came after them and yes, we have to acknowledge that at the same time.
Limitations of a progressivist view of history
NB: I think for us and you’re pointing to the danger of having a singular Narrative, of having a history that goes from bad to better to best and we’re not there. We’ve never been that country and that’s kind of like the failure of the American dream. It’s the failure of American exceptionalism, that we can never actually be a perfect country and we never have been and that our history instead of being this Arc that goes from low to high is actually been more kind of hilly, you know, uh, uh, it’s more cyclical than we previously thought.
DMcD: and The valleys have been low. And we’re in pretty low valley right now.
NB: And within those stories There are different highs and lows for each moment, but like even telling the story of James Hemings, it’s like yes, he was an exceptional, had an exceptional life; traveled to Paris, he was more or better traveled than most white Americans at the time. I went to Paris twice. We think he went there after he gained his freedom. He gained his freedom and He navigated this space from free to enslave to free again. Um, but ultimately he committed suicide and we have to acknowledge that he lived in a country that was not free and he couldn’t be free and his family couldn’t be free and that resulted in him taking his own life. Um, and these are the realities of slavery. So how do we bring back something that can never be returned to a place? Obviously, we’re not going to take the road of doing reenactments of slavery, of people being beaten, people being punished, of people having everything taken from them, having their children sold, we’re never going to recreate that [52:00] atmosphere here, but we do have to complicate it for our visitor who often only thinks of the carceral punishment and not the psychological, not the type of trauma that is intergenerational, not the type of trauma that has survived to the present. You know? I may never know where my ancestors lived and worked uh fortunately for the families here We had a great deal of records and we can give that back to them and we have a responsibility to do so, um, but it is hard. It’s challenging to do both at the same time
DMcD: speaking of reenactments. I mean, I could just talk to you forever and ever and ever. Speaking of reenactments, What do you think of those environments that do go that route and more specific than that, What do you think of the slave dwelling project? I think that’s the term where people are sleeping out, what do you make of that as a way of responding to the historical past?
NB: You know, I think there’s value in both of those experiences. I don’t know that Monticello will ever be deciding uh, where we do reenactments. We do have [53:00] people come during the Heritage Harvest Festival. We have storytellers along while Mulberry row, We have basket weavers, people who are showing skills that enslaved people had – we have cooking demonstrations. But Monticello is just not an institution where we do costumed interpretation, and I don’t think there’s anything really negative about that. I think if it’s done, well, it’s a good way for people to be immersed in a time and period that they may not understand. the slave dwelling project though I think opens a new realm for connecting with the history. I don’t know if I’m as open to it outside of The Descendant Community as we’ve only done it with descendants here and what’s been special is that because we have so many good records. I can put the Hemings family in the Hemings cabin. I can put descendants of Isaac Granger in the storehouse for iron where he was a blacksmith. I can put um, the Hearn and Fossett descendants in the kitchen and they’re able to really spend time here when it’s quiet when there are no visitors when there’s no one else here, no lighting and connect [54:00] With their ancestors in that way and for some people that’s really valuable. It’s been really restorative for some um. there are descendants of the Gillette family in particular who have mentioned having a lot of resentment and having a lot of anger and distrust for this institution and for Thomas Jefferson who after this slave dwelling project feel more connected with their ancestors feel more pride and I think that is a beneficial tool.
NB: very nuanced response. Is it time?
JP: Oh, yeah, we should be mindful of the time that you have.
NB: Yeah it’s 11:55.
JP: It’s almost 12.
DMcD: Yeah should the tour is going to start at 12 and then go to lunch?
JP: Yeah I think that’d be great.
NB: Do you want to maybe walk down and see the “Not so bad?” There’s gonna be a slavery tour starting in five minutes, but you may want to catch some audio from that.
DMcD: I’m so glad to hear you say that and to have the context for his remarks, I’m forgetting his name. Is there a Gary?
NB: Yes, Gary Sandling. he’s our VP of education.
DMcD: yeah that’s who it was because that was his response to my question that we cannot just simply say despite it all people managed because some people did not.
NB: Yeah some people didn’t survive.
DMcD: no, they did not, they did not.
NB: and some people are still struggling.
NB: You know, that’s like there is a lot of hurt That took place in the era of slavery That has not been resolved.
DMcD: That this is intergenerational that um, I’ve been, well not recently but once did some work with these two anthropologists. Um, um, the Kleinmans Arthur and unfortunately not remembering her name, but the work is called “How Bodies Remember,” uh, and that what people pass on to each other bodily, psychically, from generation to generation, uh, his subjects are the descendants [56:00] of the Chinese Revolution, but the insights that or the questions he raised in the insights He provides I think are useful for us to consider when thinking about slavery, uh that this, what this institution did and was lives within us in ways that we don’t know, some ways We do know um, and we have to keep acknowledging that because institutions, uh, Monticello, the University of Virginia, William and Mary, Brown. You name it, they’re in the business of preserving an image of themselves and that for many of them the so-called return to considering their Slave past, uh has to be conducted within the context of their overarching commitment.
NB: Oh why don’t we wait while people step out.
DMcD: Their overarching commitment to preserve constructing and preserving an [57:00] image of themselves exactly as they wish to be seen.
NB: right, exactly. And you know what? I don’t know if you were here for Uh, June 16th when we opened the new exhibit.
DMcD: No I was at a conference.
NB: Okay, great. Well, so that day we had a panel in which the president of the Ford Foundation was here, Darren Walker. and he had this fantastic quote about philanthropy, but I think it also relates to um, acknowledging our painful history, our contested past. Uh, he said, it’s not about what you’re giving back, It’s about what you’re willing to give up and I think for these institutions, they really have to re-evaluate what what we’re doing. Um, it’s not enough just to talk about black people who were here. You have to really be able to shake up the interpretation and you have to give up your comfort level with talking about decorative arts and having a singular narrative about Thomas Jefferson. You have to really be willing to potentially lose donors to lose Uh 58:00visitors you have to really uh, take some risks with telling the story because not everyone’s ready for it. But it’s a conversation that needs to happen in our country if we ever hope to move forward.
DMcD: Yeah, that is exactly the point to be made. I’ve said again and again even around how we’re responding to August 11 and 12 knowing as important as it is to know the roots of the University of Virginia and the town of Charlottesville in white supremacy, simply knowing is not enough. that that knowing then has to be translated into something much more disruptive. We don’t know for the sake of knowing, we know for the sake of doing better
NB: and you know here we’re rethinking our tours We’re trying to link our main house tour experience with the slavery tour, which you’re seeing Um for our listeners, there were standing outside of the reconstructed Hemings quarter and there’s a large tour group gathering. we run these slavery tours every 30 59:00minutes from 10:00 to 4:00. Um, and the groups are getting bigger and bigger which is great. But we’d like to make these one experience.
JP: So you’re talking about the principle of splitting, there’s a house tour and a separate slavery tour.
NB: Currently, there’s a house tour and then you can opt into taking the slavery tour and we’re working on a way to not make that optional, to make it a main part of our experience.
DMcD: Because otherwise you do create the sense that these are separable, that what are inseparable Experiences can be separated because obviously people not wanting to confront the quote-unquote painful past will opt out.
(Moving for tour group)
DMcD: So where would we see the sign.
NB: Just left through the door.
The role of family during slavery
(Entering the slave cabin)
JP: Can you maybe tell us what we’re looking at here?
NB: Sure. So we’re standing inside of the Hemings cabin, which we’ve interpreted for John and Priscilla Hemings and we’re looking at that not so bad plaque that I mentioned earlier. Uh, so this cabin is about 10 by 14. It’s a really nice restoration or Recreation of what would have been here. It’s a lot of building,There’s a loft upstairs. We’re standing on a dirt floor, but it’s pretty clean 61:00because it’s a restoration. Um, actually it’s a recreation it was not here to restore. Um, so it’s necessarily overbuilt and probably a lot nicer materially than a slave quarter would have been. Now we restored the Using the same methods, same construction, practice, same types of trees. Um, but again, it’s a museum and we clean things daily because we have to prepare for all these visitors to see it. Um, so it is nicer than probably enslaved people would have known so we had to put a sign here that basically addresses that. that says that enslaved people as property could always be sold and separated and the one thing they had was their families. That is the ultimate tool for controlling enslaved people is the threat of selling away their children or even any family member really.
JP: you just reminded me and this maybe can be our final question. But you just reminded me of kind of a critical question that I’ve had in the past and it’s [62:00] come up in past interviews and maybe two-part questions. I’ll start with the first one which is if you can maybe talk a little bit about how Jefferson used the family structure on the plantation. So you mentioned like keeping the Hemings family together more or less but maybe meditating on that a bit as Jefferson as sort of the father Monticello or like in this weird, So if you can comment on that and then I’ll do my follow-up.
NB: Yes, so slavery is a very patriarchal institution. Uh, it’s one where a lot of slave owners rationalize their participation in what was a very cruel and violent Institution and we weâll step over here So we don’t get as much sound from outside but was a very cruel, violent institution and corrected people. Uh, they Justified it by saying that uh, you couldn’t free these enslaved Africans who were not considered people because they couldn’t take care of themselves because they were like children. So it’s a very patriarchal way to think of your role in society. So Jefferson as father Of Monticello to everyone [63:00] here and he’s very exacting even with his own white family members like his daughters have to live their lives based on a schedule that he said, you know, they have to spend a certain amount of time practicing the piano practicing the violin, studying different topics because he said so and for the enslaved people that means they have to work sunup to sundown because he said so uh, so that is a very, um, I don’t know, it’s interesting to consider. but then when you think about the way that he thinks about enslaved families, I mean, he writes that enslaved people aren’t capable of having these feelings, but then also recognizes that they are and uses that to control its leverage basically, um, when Monticello first became a plantation, when he first builds this property and this is through the 1760s-1770s enslaved people were living in more Barracks style housing slightly larger than the building we’re in. all men would have lived together, all women. But then as plantation society is becoming more [64:00] established Um, there’s a there’s really good book actually called advice Among Masters. So slaveholders start talking to each other and they’re like, Hm. Let’s set a list of best practices and basically they realize that enslaved people really value their families and the best way to incentivize them to work harder is to keep the families together, but that also means that the worst punishment is to break up a family. And to sell someone and so what that looks like is individual housing for family units. Um, you know, these houses especially these log buildings moved with the work, not along Mulberry row certainly out of the quarter Fields, uh quarter Farms. So at the quarter farms, they move based on where the Harvest is going, but the family stays together for the most part. Um, there are instances where children are sent to Poplar forest or To uh, send us gifts as Dowry to other members of the Randolph family. Um, so there are instances where people are separated but you know the method that he’s [65:00] using to manage this Plantation is to keep families together
Family separation as a tool of control
JP: and then there’s that moment, so just to follow up, so keeping families together is sort of a way of making them more productive laborers? Is that fair to say?
NB: Yeah, that’s what he’s hoping.
JP: And there’s a moment. Um, I guess upon I guess was it Isaac Jefferson recounting the moment of selling off families. I wonder if you can talk about that briefly and that might have been you can correct me if I’m wrong but following Jefferson’s death?
NB: That’s after Jefferson’s death, yes. So after Jefferson dies, he dies deeply in debt. his son-in-law becomes the executor, Sorry, his grandson becomes the executor of his will um, and he’s tasked with selling everybody. So in 1827, 130 people are offered For sale and for Isaac, I believe Madison andIsrael both mentioned in their Memoirs. This is a moment of great uncertainty for these families because they’re not sure whether they get to stay together. [66:00] And for many of them, they don’t. they’re purchased by neighbors, They’re purchased by other members of Jefferson’s family, They’re purchased by professors at the University of Virginia. And in many cases, they are separated. and now behind the scenes, uh, some of the enslaved men who are living and working along Mulberry row and I’m talking your tradesmen, so the Carpenters, the joiners, the blacksmiths, people who have a little bit wider Network have negotiate purchases to keep their families together. Uh, so that shows that the enslaved Community is aware of this as well and that they are strategizing to keep their families together and that they’re resisting separation, which I think is a really important element.
JP: I’m so glad we got to ask that question.
DMcD: Yes, I am.
JP: Family separation is really prominent these days.
DMcD: And to bring this conversation full circle and reiterate what you just said contrary to what Jefferson is arguing in query 14, uh, their griefs are transient. They don’t love, I’m paraphrasing here, um to the extent that other [67:00] humans love that he is clearly aware that there, it is just the opposite and that he can exploit that for his own purposes. And we can see that even in the aftermath of slavery. I have always found it incredibly moving that among the first things newly free people did was to roam the countryside looking for their lost relatives, placing ads in religious newspapers. They are telling that these are people whose effective lives are deep and rich whose family ties are strong. And have been ruptured and so yeah, we can, now I’m sermonizing.
NB: Can I just add, because I really like, because you can see that people are remembering family members They lost a long time ago. It’s like, you know my mother, I was separated from her at age three. She’s in Virginia. I’m in Louisiana and I’m placing an ad in hopes that someone has seen her or can [68:00] reconnect us.
DMcD: Absolutely. That’s that’s one of. Moving parts to about Paul D in Beloved, uh or sick soul in Beloved called in the novel The 30-mile Man. That the distance is people would walk and travel for some connection. However friable to a loved one. Douglass writes about it in the 1845 narrative, his mother traveling from another Plantation. So it is indisputable that enslaved people were deeply and emotionally connected to their loved ones and to suggest otherwise.
DMcD: I had to censor myself.
JP: Yeah, right it’s nonsense.